General aspects: subdivision, aims and purposes of plant pathology. The concept of disease in plants. Diseases. Types and causes of disease. Economic importance and losses caused by plant diseases
Symptoms and modifications caused by pathogens to the plants.
Basic procedures in the diagnosis of plant diseases: microscopic examination and isolation and techniques of characterization of causal agents.
Parasitism and disease development. Parasitism and pathogenicity. Development of disease in plant, the disease triangle. Parasitic specialization.
The inoculum. Density and potential of inoculum. Release, transport and survival of the inoculum. Transmission of diseases.
Mechanisms of attack by pathogens. Infection, penetration, colonization and dissemination.
How plants defend themselves against pathogens. Passive (structural and chemical) defenses. Active defenses. Hypersensitivity response. The host pathogen recognition and the genetic basis of resistance. Induced resistance
Plant disease epidemiology. Environmental factors that affect development of epidemics. Development of epidemics.
Control of plant disease: introduction,. Control methods to eradicate or reduce pathogens. Biological methods. Physical methods. Methods of protection by chemicals. Integrated control of plant diseases.
SPECIFIC PLANT DISEASE
Plant disease caused by fungi.
Introduction. General characteristics of fungi: morphology, reproduction. Ecology. Dissemination. Epidemiology. Classification of plant pathogenic fungi.
The club root of crucifers caused by Plasmodiofora brassicae
The damping of and rots caused by Pythium spp..
The late blight of potatoes and tomatoes caused by Phytophthora infestans;
Root rot, Phytophthora gummosis, brown rot and Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora spp..
The downy mildew of lettuce and artichoke caused by Bremia lactucae; the downy mildew of grape caused by Plasmopara viticola; the downy mildew of melon caused Pseudoperonospora cubensis.
Diseases caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes.
Leaf curl disease of peach.
The Powdery mildew of grape; the Powdery mildew of stone fruit; the Powdery mildew of pome fruit; the Powdery mildew of tomato and artichoke.
Apple and Pear scab.
Botrytis grey mold diseases.
Vascular wilts of solanaceous and stone fruits caused by fusarium and verticillium.
Crown rot and stem rot of vegetables caused by Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Sclerotium.
Armillaria root rot.
olive leaf spot (peacock spot disease) caused by Cycloconium oleaginum.
Diseases caused by Basidiomicetes. Cereal rusts, stem rust of wheat and other cereals.
Plant disease caused by procaryotes.
Bacteria. Characteristics of plant pathogenic bacteria. Ecology and spread. The infectious process. Symptoms. Classification of plant pathogenic bacteria. Control of bacterial diseases.
Bacterial diseases of tomato: “pith necrosis”; “bacterial spot”; “bacterial speck”; “bacterial soft rot”; “bacterial wilt”; “bacterial canker”. Olive knot. Bacterial soft rot of vegetables. Crown gall of stone fruits, pome fruits and grapes. Bacterial cankers and gummosis of stone fruits
Phytoplasmas: introduction. Symptoms. Epidemiology and diagnosis. Classification. Control of phytoplasma diseases.
The Stolbur of solanaceous crops. The Grapevine yellows: flavescence dorée; bois noir. European stone fruit yellows.
Plant disease caused by viruses.
Introduction. General characteristics of plant viruses. Epidemiology of plant viruses: Detection and identification of plant viruses. Nomenclature and classification of plant viruses. Control of plant viruses.
Viruses of grape: grapevine fanleaf; grapevine leafroll; grapevine rugose wood.