Nomenclature. Electrophilic substitution's reactions of furan, thiophene, pyrrole, indole, benzofuran and benzothiophene; reactions with bases, nucleophiles and metallation's reactions. Synthesis of Paal-Knorr, Knorr, Hantzsch, Feist-Benary, Fischer, Reissert. The use of N-oxides of pyridine in substitution reactions of the pyridine nucleus. Reaction of Chichibabin and metallation of the alkyl pyridines. Synthesis from 1,5-diketones, followed by oxidation, synthesis of Hantzsch. Synthesis of pyrimidine nucleus from 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds (β-diketones + amidine, β-diketones + guanidine). Electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution's reactions of quinolines and isoquinolines. Skraup and Bischler-Napieralski synthesis.