ALGAE. Generalities, thallus organization, main evolution lines, life cycles and reproduction.
FUNGI. Main characteristics of the terrestrial fungi and their relations to plants (mycorrhizae).
LICHENES. Main characteristics, morphology and ecology.
BRYOPHYTES. Generalities, evolution, morphology, reproduction, life cycle.
PTERIDOPHYTES. Generalities, evolution, morphology, reproduction, life cycles.
SPERMATOPHYTES. Ovule and seed. Main characteristics, morphology, reproduction, evolution and life cycles of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Angiosperms taxonomy. Study cases from Sardinian and Mediterranean Floras. Use of key guides to detect taxa (families).