Historical elements. Ecosystem concept, structure and classification.
Energy. Photosynthesis, productivity and methods of measurement. Decomposition. Food chains and food webs, ecological efficiency, universal patterns of energy flow.
Biogeochemical cycles, cycles gaseous and sedimentary cycles of CO2, alimitante: Law of the Minimum and tolerance. Classification of factors.
Dynamics of population density, distribution, fertility, mortality, life cycles, mortality tables, static and dynamic. Exponential growth and logistic curve. Intraspecific and interspecific competition. The predation.
The community, richness and diversity of species, the environmental gradients, ecotones.
Succession, climax. Biogeography of the islands.
Marine environment. Benthos. Abiotic factors (irradiance, temperature, nutrients, moisture and salinity) and biotic (predation, competition and symbiosis) influencing the distribution of bentic communities. Models by Paine & Menge and Sutherland. Macroalgae of hard and soft bottoms. Introduced species of the Med. Causes and consequences of their introduction. The genus Caulerpa. Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. Seagrasses and thier importance. Monoic and dioci plants. The trophic cascade. Benthic microalgae. Lagoon systems. Eutrophication. Coral reefs. Conservation of the marine envrironment.