The evolution of the landscapes, the question of plates, the shape of the continents, the weathering of rocks, the karstic process and karstic landforms, the granitic landscape. Soils and weathering, factors of soils formation. Cold environment, the formation of glacier ice, glacial processes and landscape. The climatic changes during the Pleistocene, climate in the Olocene. Coastal landscapes, waves action on coastal lines, the beaches, sea-level changes. Rivers and drainage basic patterns, rivers erosion and sedimentation. Mass movements, slope instability. reading landscapes from topographic maps.