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In this course, I will provide a reconstruction of the history of both fascism and anti-fascism. The objective is twofold: the first goal is to help students understand the characteristics of the fascist party, as well as its work in the organization of society, and in building the regime. The second goal is to analyze both the parties existing prior to the “Marcia su Roma” (the march on Rome), and the political policies of the antifascist formations during the twenty years of Fascism in Italy.
This course will concentrate on the history of Italian political parties between the end of the 19th century and the end of the 20th century, and in particular on the history of the National Fascist Party (NFP) and the history of antifascist parties. The subjects covered will be: the transformation of the Italian political system after WWI, mass parties; the crisis of the liberal state; the “Fasci di combattimento” and the NFP; the parties defeated by fascism; the Italian Socialist Party, and the Italian Communist Party; the characteristics of the NFP in the twenties and the thirties, fascist organization and the spreading of fascist culture within society; antifascists living in exile; antifascist clandestine activity in Italy; the formation of antifascist unity at the end of the thirties.
M. RIDOLFI, Storia dei partiti politici. L’Italia dal Risorgimento alla Repubblica, Milano, Bruno Mondadori, 2008;
E. GENTILE, Fascismo e antifascismo. I partiti italiani fra le due guerre, Firenze, Le Monnier, 2000