The Insects: origin, general organization and relationships with other Arthropods, the main orders of insects.
Morphology: The integument and the endoskeleton. The colours of insects. The regions of the body. The head-capsule and its appendages. The mouthparts and their modifications in the different orders. The thorax and its appendages. The adaptive modifications of the legs and the wings. The abdomen and its appendages and processes. External genitalia.
Anatomy: The muscular system. The nervous system. The sense organs. The alimentary canal (morphology, physiology, intestinal symbiosis, different types of diets). The circulatory system. The respiratory system. The excretory organs. The organs of secretion. The reproductive system (male and female organs, types of reproduction).
Embryogenesis. Postembryonic development. Metamorphosis types. Larval and pupal types. The adult insect (sexual dimorphism, polymorphism, gynandromorphism, light and sound production). Insect aggregation. Social insects.
Life cycles, biotic potential and environment. Insect populations: numerical changes, influence of abiotic and biotic factors on insect population abundance.
Pest management. Biological control. Cultural control. Physical control. Chemical control (insecticides classification, mode of action, formulations, insecticide resistance). Integrated pest management.