Regulation (EC) 1223/2009. Definition of cosmetic and its functions. The Annexes. RAPEX system.
Structure and function of the skin. Models of reconstituted human epidermis.
Lipids of cosmetic interest. Hydrocarbons. Silicone derivatives for cosmetic use. Triglycerides. Non-glycerid esters. Unsaponifiables.
Detergent surfactants. Surface tension. HLB system. Mechanism of detergency. Anionic detergents (soaps, alkyl sulphates, alkyl ethoxy sulphates), amphoteric detergents (betaines, alkylamphoacetates, alkyl amphodiacetates), non ionic detergents (alkylpolyglucosides, sucrose monoesters, alkanolamides, amine oxides). Foam formation.
Emulsifiers. Definition of emulsions. Classification of emulsifiers. Donnan theory. Concept of couple of emulsifiers. Primary HLB. Requested HLB. Emulsifiers for O/W emulsions. Polymeric emulsifiers. Emulsifiers for W/O emulsions.
Rheology agents. Principles of rheology. Newtonian and non-newtonian fluids. Natural, synthetic and inorganic rheology agents.
Humectants and moisturizers. Skin hydration, Natural moisturizing factor (NMF).
Antioxidants. Lipoperoxidation. Chelators.
Microbiology of cosmetics. Antimicrobial preservatives (isothiazolinones, parabens, formaldehyde releasers, QACs). Challenge Test.
Film-forming and fixative ingredients.
Colorants. Hair colorants.
Hair lightening products.
Permanent hair waving products.
Cosmetic in pressurized containers.
Classification of categories of cosmetic products.
Antiperspirants and deodorants. Origin of body odour. Active ingredients in antiperspirants. Antiperspirants formulations (creams, sticks, roll-on, sprays). Active ingredients in deodorants (fragrances, antibacterial compounds, enzyme blockers, adsorbents). Deodorants formulations (Sticks, roll-on, sprays). Evaluation of antiperspirants and deodorants efficacy.
Sunscreens. Effects of UV-A and UV-B radiations on human skin. Melanogenesis process. Classification of skin types. UV-A and UV-B filters. Broad spectrum filters. Filters photostability. In vivo evaluation of the protection efficacy of sunscreen: SPF and PPD.
Formulations of personal cleansing products.