Summary of basic concepts of chemistry. Orbital hybridization and formation of sp 3 , sp 2 , sp organic compounds . Functional groups. Alkanes and alkyl groups : Properties of alkanes . Alkenes The main types of organic reactions . Addition of HCl to ethylene . The aromatic compounds . The structure of benzene . Nomenclature of compounds romatici . The chemistry of benzene. Alcohols, ethers and phenols. Properties. Oxidation of alcohols. Thiols and sulfides . The carbonyl compounds . Structure and properties of the carbonyl group . Oxidation of aldehydes . Formation of hemiacetals and acetals . Car carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Acids bi - and tricarboxylic . Fatty acids. Availability, structure and properties. Acidity. Fischer esterification . Reactions of amides . Condensation reactions of carbonyl compounds . Keto - enol . Acetone , pyruvic acid , glyceraldehyde , dihydroxyacetone , glyceraldehyde isomerization - dihydroxyacetone , glucose - fructose. Aldol condensation . The carbonyl condensation reactions in biology : glyceraldehyde + dihydroxyacetone , acetyl CoA + oxaloacetate ) . Reactions retroaldoliche . The amines . Nomenclature . Structure and properties of amines . Basicity of amines . Heterocyclic amines : pyrrole and pyridine ( 12.7) . Carbohydrates - Classification . Configuration of monosaccharides : Fischer projections . The St. rutture cyclic monosaccharides : formation of hemiacetals . Anomere forms of monosaccharides : the mutarotation . Conformations of monosaccharides . Reactions of monosaccharides . Disaccharides . Lactose. The polysaccharides . Deoxyribose ( . Amino acids, peptides and proteins. Dipolar The structure of amino acids. The isoelectric point . Titration curve of an amino acid . Peptides and the peptide bond . Lipids . Classification . Neighborhoods acilgliceridi . Phospholipids . Bioenergetics: Elements of thermodynamics to the applicat biochemical reactions ; concepts of enthalpy, entropy and free energy , exergonic and endergonic reactions and their coupling . general concept of metabolism and nature of the flows of energy in the anabolic and catabolic phases . catalysis en zimatica : Mechanism of enzyme catalysis , structure and characteristics of enzymes, the theory of Michaelis - Menten kinetic parameters and definition of an enzyme . Inhibition and regulation of enzyme activity . Isoenzymes , allosteric enzymes and zymogens . Mechanism of action and biochemical role of: hydrolases , oxidoreductases , transferases , lyases , isomerases and synthase. photosynthesis and the elaboration of carbon : photosynthetic pigments . The role of the light and the reaction of Hill . The photosystems and photosynthetic electron transport . Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation . The Calvin cycle . Photorespiration . C4 photosynthesis in plants . Formation of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. The carbon cycle in nature. Respiration and carbohydrate metabolism : glycolysis and fermentation processes connected . The way of gluconeogenesis. The way of the phosphogluconate . The aerobic catabolism and the citric acid cycle . The way of the glyoxylate . The respiratory chain and the mitochondrial transport of elements ttroni . The oxidative phosphorylation. Energy yield of fermentation processes and the respiratory system. The respiratory quotient . The metabolism of nitrogen compounds : The nitrogen cycle in nature. Biochemical aspects of nitrogen fixation grade, the reduction of nitrates and ammonia nitrogen dell'organicazione . Formation of amino acids and proteins . Proteolysis , oxidative degradation of amino acids and nitrogen mineralization . Denitrification .