Elements of plant citology. Membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton. Cell wall and its modifications. Plasmodesmata. Plastids. Vacuole.
Primary and secondary meristems. Parenchymatic, tegumental, mechanical, conductive and secretory tissues.
Primary and secondary structure of stems, leaves and roots with their modifications.
Elements of bioenergetics. Chemical and electrochemical potential. Photosynthesis: capture of solar energy and carbon organication. Photorespiration. Plants C4 and CAM. Translocation of organic compounds.
Physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential and water trasport.
Plant ormones: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ethylene, abscisic acid.