Molecular cloning: restriction and modification enzymes. Reverse transcription-PCR. Cloning vectors. Expression systems: study of gene function and production of recombinant proteins. Expression systems: prokaryotic, eukaryotic: Yeast (S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris), insect cells, Drosophila melanogaster; mammalian cells in culture. Transgenic animals: the homologous and site-specific recombination; knockout mice, knockin mice, conditional knock-out mice, transgenic plants. RNA interference: principles and applications. Techniques for the analysis of the transcriptome: Northern, in situ hybridization, quantitative analysis of the expression of a single or multiple genes by Real-Time PCR. Microarrays.