INTRODUCTION. Autotrophy and heterotrophy. Origins and diversity of plants. Biomolecules.
PLANT CITOLOGY. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Membranes. Structure and functions of: nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, cytoskeleton. Cell wall: features and modifications. Plasmodesmata. Plastids. Vacuole.
PLANT HISTOLOGY. Primary and secondary meristems. Parenchymatic tissues: general features and morphofunctional modifications. Tegumental tissues: epidermis, rhizoderm, esoderm, cork, endoderm. Mechanical tissue: collenchyma and sclerenchyma. Conductive tissues: phloem and xylem. Secretory tissues.
PLANT ORGANOGENESIS. Primary and secondary structure of stems, leaves and roots. Special modifications of stems, leaves and roots.
PLANT BIOPHYSICS AND BIOENERGY. Chemical and electrochemical potential. Electromagnetic spectrum. The activity of photosynthetic pigments. Photosystems and photosynthetic transport of electrons. Photophosphorylation. Carbon fixation by the Calvin cycle. Photorespiration. Plants C4 and CAM. Translocation of organic compounds.
PLANT WATER RELATIONS. The physical and chemical properties of water. Water potential and water trasport in plants.