Errors. Significant digits. Rounding techniques. Error propagation. Graphical representations of statistical use. Arithmetic mean. Standard deviation. Coefficient of variation. The t test. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision.
The solutions. Activity, concentration, activity coefficient. Acids and bases. Multiple equilibria of acids, bases and their mixtures in water. Buffer solutions and buffer capacity. Complexation reactions. Study and resolution of homogeneous multiple equilibria. Formation constant of complexes, conditional constant, side reaction coefficient Mechanisms for solubilization of the precipitates. Gravimetric analysis. volumetric methods