Plant cell, plastids, cell wall, vacuole, cell differentiation, plant tissues. Morphology and structure of stem, leaf, root and their functions. Modification of the organs and ecological adaptations.
Reproduction of plants and the biological cycle. Kinds and systems of reproduction in the different taxonomic groups. Morphology of the reproductive structures, flower, gametes, ovary, fruit, seed. Floral biology, pollination and fertilization. Apomixis. Dispersion of the fruit and seed. Biological cycles in the different plant groups
Principles and methods of the Systematic Botany
The plant biodiversity. Classification systems and taxonomic categories. Species concept, genus, family. Essential overview on Bacteria, Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. The major groups of vascular plants, i.e., Gymnosperms, Angiosperms (Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons). The native and alien flora. Biological forms and biological spectrum. Areal and chorologycal types. Centers of origin of cultivated plants.
Main families of agricultural, forestry and economic development, i.e., Pinaceae, Cupressaceae s.l., Fagaceae, Salicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae s.l., Apiaceae, Oleaceae, Asteraceae, Gramineae, Iridaceae, Liliaceae.
Preparation of tissues: cell types, stem, root, leaf.
Analysis, description and recognition of stem, root and leaf modified.
Recognition and identification of families, genera and species using analytical keys and herbarium preparation.