The birth of Organic Chemistry, Theory of Vitalism. The carbon compounds in living organisms, the periodic table.
Structure and Bonds
The atom and subatomic particles, isotopes. The periodic table. Orbitals, electronic configurations, Lewis method, octet rule and exceptions. chemical bond. Electronegativity, oxidation number. Resonance. VSEPR theory. Hybridization. Polarity.
Acids and Bases
Acids and bases of Brønsted-Lowry acid strength and pKa: effects of the element, inductive effect, resonance and hybridization. Acids and Lewis bases, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Organic Molecules and functional groups
Functional groups. Hydrocarbons. Compounds containing a sigma C-Z bond or C=O. intermolecular forces: van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole interaction, hydrogen bond. Physical and reactivity properties.
Introduction to Organic Reactions
Substitution, elimination and addition reactions. Homolysis and heterolysis. Radicals, carbanions and carbocations. Bond dissociation energy. Enthalpy. Exothermic and exothermic reactions. Stereochemistry
Constitutional or stereoisomers isomers. Stereogenic centers. Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (prefixes R or S system). Enantiomers and diastereoisomers. Meso compounds. Cis and Trans isomers.
Substitution Reactions and Elimination Reactions
Nucleophilic substitution: Sn2 and Sn1. Inversion of the configuration and racemization. Nature of R and reaction rate. Energy diagrams. Stability of carbocations. inductive and hyperconjugation effects. The E1 and E2 mechanisms. The Zaitsev's rule. Regioselectivity and stereoselectivity.
Classes of organic compounds: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds, alcohols, ethers , epoxides, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives
IUPAC and traditional nomenclature. Physical and chemical properties. Structure and bonds. Conformations and energy. Principal reactions of each class.